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Table 3 Relative abundance of dominant genera in faecal microbiota of infants at 3–4 months, according to birth scenarios and pet exposure

From: Exposure to household furry pets influences the gut microbiota of infants at 3–4 months following various birth scenarios

Birth scenarios Dominant generaa Pet exposure status (N = 746)
No exposure
337 (45.17%)
Median (IQR)
Only prenatal
60 (8.0%)
Median (IQR)
Both pre- and postnatal
349 (46.78%)
Median (IQR)
P FDRp
Vaginal,
IAP−
  171 (45.6%) 32 (8.5%) 172 (45.9%)   
Bifidobacterium 5.3 (1.8–14.9) 2.2 (0.68–13.0) 6.3 (1.6–17.8) 0.21 0.63
Bacteroides 31.2 (0.36–62.4) 29.9 (2.4–62.9) 31.5 (0.61–60.7) 0.66 0.86
Parabacteroides 0.01 (0.00–0.5) 0.16 (0.00–2.9) 0.01 (0.00–0.51) 0.13 0.51
Streptococcus 0.62 (0.13–2.1) 0.46 (0.21–1.4) 0.59 (0.21–1.8) 0.81 0.86
Unclassified Clostridiaceae 0.03 (0.00–0.45) 0.09 (0.00–0.46) 0.07 (0.01–0.49) 0.45 0.81
Clostridium 0.01 (0.00–0.38) 0.01 (0.00–0.29) 0.02 (0.00–0.42) 0.15 0.51
Unclassified Lachnospiraceae 0.02 (0.00–1.6) 0.38 (0.02–4.8)* 0.05 (0.01–1.5)* 0.02 0.16
Ruminococcus 0.02 (0.00–1.2) 0.43 (0.01–1.5)* 0.05 (0.00–2.6)* 0.03 0.21
Oscillospira 0.00 (0.00–0.04) 0.07 (0.00–2.3)* 0.01 (0.00–0.7)*** <0.001 0.04
Veillonella 1.5 (0.16–14.9) 2.9 (0.13–9.1) 1.6 (0.24–7.6) 0.89 0.91
Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae 15.5 (7.0–31.9) 5.4 (1.3–28.4)** 13.3 (4.6–34.8) 0.02 0.16
Akkermansia 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.42 0.81
Vaginal,
IAP+
  75 (42.6%) 14 (8.0%) 87 (49.4%)   
Bifidobacterium 2.0 (0.06–9.9) 2.2 (0.36–4.1) 3.7 (0.27–16.8) 0.25 0.69
Bacteroides 0.67 (0.05–59.2) 33.7 (0.04–56.3) 12.0 (0.05–69.6) 0.84 0.88
Parabacteroides 0.01 (0.00–0.03) 0.00 (0.00–1.12) 0.00 (0.00–0.02) 0.95 0.95
Streptococcus 0.43 (0.21–1.6) 0.47 (0.12–0.93) 0.59 (0.2–3.6) 0.34 0.81
Unclassified Clostridiaceae 0.08 (0.01–0.88) 0.30 (0.01–3.5) 0.09 (0.01–1.0) 0.49 0.81
Clostridium 0.03 (0.00–0.86) 0.07 (0.02–1.9) 0.04 (0.00–1.0) 0.47 0.81
Unclassified Lachnospiraceae 0.02 (0.00–3.8) 0.66 (0.01–4.1) 0.08 (0.01–3.2) 0.55 0.83
Ruminococcus 0.01 (0.00–0.44) 0.02 (0.00–1.28) 0.03 (0.01–1.88)*** 0.004 0.1
Oscillospira 0.00 (0.00–0.56) 0.02 (0.00–2.8) 0.01 (0.00–0.65) 0.66 0.86
Veillonella 3.2 (0.3–13.9) 0.63 (0.19–13.7) 2.7 (0.24–11.8) 0.69 0.86
Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae 20.3 (8.7–37.3) 21.8 (9.8–503) 12.5 (3.6–37.0)* 0.06 0.29
Akkermansia 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.74 0.86
Caesarean, scheduled   42 (48.3%) 4 (4.6%) 41 (47.1%)   
Bifidobacterium 5.0 (0.37–21.6) 3.7 (0.51–19.9) 8.2 (1.3–16.9) 0.76 0.86
Bacteroides 0.08 (0.04–0.44) 30.0 (0.08–61.1) 0.10 (0.05–0.42) 0.49 0.81
Parabacteroides 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.04) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.74 0.86
Streptococcus 0.80 (0.29–2.1) 0.46 (0.13–0.75) 1.6 (0.39–3.7) 0.15 0.51
Unclassified Clostridiaceae 0.15 (0.01–1.5) 0.13 (0.02–1.7) 0.40 (0.06–1.6) 0.58 0.84
Clostridium 0.04 (0.01–1.5) 0.16 (0.02–0.59) 0.28 (0.02–1.7) 0.54 0.82
Unclassified Lachnospiraceae 0.04 (0.00–8.7) 2.0 (0.46–22.6) 0.05 (0.00–7.1) 0.42 0.81
Ruminococcus 0.02 (0.00–1.9) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–1.7) 0.26 0.69
Oscillospira 0.00 (0.00–0.16) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.03 (0.00–0.89)* 0.04 0.24
Veillonella 7.0 (1.04–16.3) 3.6 (1.14–5.41) 6.2 (1.57–29.7) 0.53 0.82
Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae 27.7 (10.1–45.2) 34.9 (13.1–74.7) 30.5 (10.8–47.8) 0.79 0.86
Akkermansia 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.00) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.36 0.81
Caesarean, emergency   49 (45.4%) 10 (9.3%) 49 (45.4%)   
Bifidobacterium 6.5 (1.2–18.0) 4.8 (1.9–12.4) 5.3 (0.18–16.8) 0.75 0.86
Bacteroides 0.08 (0.03–0.17) 0.13 (0.05–17.1) 0.09 (0.04–1.3) 0.19 0.61
Parabacteroides 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.01 (0.00–0.02)* 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.05 0.27
Streptococcus 1.2 (0.5–3.0) 0.64 (0.13–5.1) 0.96 (0.27–2.7) 0.48 0.81
Unclassified Clostridiaceae 0.36 (0.02–3.3) 0.30 (0.01–0.67) 0.31 (0.04–1.6) 0.65 0.86
Clostridium 0.19 (0.02–2.4) 0.04 (0.00–1.1) 0.20 (0.02–1.2) 0.63 0.86
Unclassified Lachnospiraceae 0.03 (0.01–5.2) 0.39 (0.01–1.6) 0.77 (0.01–9.2) 0.41 0.81
Ruminococcus 0.00 (0.00–0.03) 0.00 (0.00–0.33) 0.22 (0.00–4.6)** 0.01 0.16
Oscillospira 0.01 (0.00–0.45) 0.00 (0.00–1.2) 0.19 (0.01–2.8)** 0.02 0.16
Veillonella 9.2 (2.98–26.2) 8.6 (4.3–42.4) 8.1 (0.53–23.8) 0.45 0.81
Unclassified Enterobacteriaceae 34.1 (16.5–54.1) 18.1 (7.5–32.9) 16.4 (6.3–48.4) 0.1 0.44
Akkermansia 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.00 (0.00–0.01) 0.81 0.86
  1. IQR interquartile range, FDR false discovery rate
  2. Post hoc comparisons between no exposure group and either group of exposure were done by Mann-Whitney U test. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.0001
  3. aDominant genera have overall median relative abundance >1% at 3–4 months; phyla are in plain text and families are in italics. Comparisons by nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test with FDR correction for multiple testing