Skip to main content

Table 1 Population characteristics and associations with exposure to household pets

From: Exposure to household furry pets influences the gut microbiota of infants at 3–4 months following various birth scenarios

  Overall Households with at least 1 furry pet
  No exposure Only prenatal Both pre- and postnatal P value to compare 3 exposure groups
  N (%)
746 (100)
N (%)
337 (45.2)
N (%)
60 (8.0)
N (%)
349 (46.8)
Birth mode
 Vaginal, IAP− 375 (50.3) 171 (45.6) 32 (8.5) 172 (45.9) 0.88
 Vaginal, IAP+ 176 (23.6) 75 (42.6) 14 (8.0) 87 (49.4)
 Caesarean, scheduled 87 (11.7) 42 (48.3) 4 (4.6) 41 (47.1)
 Caesarean, emergency 108 (14.5) 49 (45.4) 10 (9.3) 49 (45.4)
Study sites
 Edmonton 216 (29.0) 80 (37.0) 19 (8.8) 117 (54.2) <0.001
 Vancouver 286 (38.3) 158 (55.2) 16 (5.6) 112 (39.2)
 Winnipeg 244 (32.7) 99 (40.6) 25 (10.2) 120 (49.2)
Maternal race
 Caucasian 561 (75.3) 223 (39.8) 49 (8.7) 289 (51.5) <0.001
 Other 78 (10.5) 38 (48.7) 5 (6.4) 35 (44.9)
 Asian 106 (14.2) 76 (71.7) 6 (5.7) 24 (22.6)
Maternal asthma during pregnancy
 No 675 (90.6) 307 (45.5) 53 (7.9) 315 (46.7) 0.98
 Yes 70 (9.4) 31 (44.3) 6 (8.6) 33 (47.1)
Maternal allergy during pregnancy
 No 271 (36.6) 133 (49.1) 24 (8.9) 114 (42.1) 0.19
 Yes 470 (63.4) 204 (43.4) 36 (7.7) 230 (48.9)
Type of home
 Single (house) 592 (79.4) 251 (42.4) 53 (9.0) 288 (48.6) 0.007
 Multiple (condo/apartment) 154 (20.6) 86 (55.8) 7 (4.5) 61 (39.6)
Size of household < 3
 No 414 (55.5) 190 (45.9) 34 (8.2) 190 (45.9) 0.86
 Yes 332 (44.5) 147 (44.3) 26 (7.8) 159 (47.9)
Changed house (from 18 weeks of pregnancy to 3 months)
 No 683 (91.6) 309 (45.2) 51 (7.5) 323 (47.3) 0.15
 Yes 63 (8.4) 28 (44.4) 9 (14.3) 26 (41.3)
Type of floor
 Not carpeted 360 (48.3) 156 (43.3) 25 (6.9) 179 (49.7) 0.58
 Partially carpeted 235 (31.5) 110 (46.8) 21 (8.9) 104 (44.3)
 Completely carpeted 151 (20.2) 71 (47.0) 14 (9.3) 66 (43.7)
Siblings
 No 379 (52.6) 162 (42.7) 28 (7.4) 189 (49.9) 0.21
 Yes 342 (47.4) 166 (48.5) 28 (8.2) 148 (43.3)
Antibiotic exposure (0–3 months)a
 No 317 (43.8) 142 (44.8) 26 (8.2) 149 (47.0) 0.98
 Yes 407 (56.2) 184 (45.2) 32 (7.9) 191 (46.9)
Breastfeeding status at 3 months
 No 126 (16.9) 46 (36.5) 14 (11.1) 66 (52.4) 0.17
 Partial 229 (30.7) 101 (44.1) 18 (7.9) 110 (48.0)
 Exclusive 391 (52.4) 190 (48.6) 28 (7.2) 173 (44.2)
  1. Comparisons by chi-square test
  2. aAntibiotic exposure of infants = collective consideration of both indirect exposure (maternal IAP) and direct exposure (IV and oral antibiotics)