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Table 1 Demographic and clinical data of patients with SLE and healthy control subjects

From: Subgingival microbiota dysbiosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with periodontal status

  Controls SLE
  Non-CP CP Non-CP CP
Subjects 24 (46.2%) 28 (53.8%) 17 (32.7%) 35 (67.3%) ab
Females (%) 39 48 30 57
Age (years) 34.7 (±15.9) 46.3 (±13.2)a 31.2 (±5.2) 40.5 (±10.1) ab
Smoking status (%) 3.81 7.60 5.70 9.60
SLE duration (years) 8.6 (±6.2) 12.5 (±7.8)a
SLEDAI 4.5 (±4.0) 5.5 (±4.6)
SLICC/ACR 0.5 (±1.0) 0.9 (±0.9)
Probing depth (mm) 1.65 (±0.31) 2.72 (±0.62)a 1.91 (±0.62) 3.37 (±0.49) ab
Clinical attachment level (mm) 2.60 (±0.24) 3.62 (±0.63)a 2.97 (±0.63) 4.00 (±0.63) ab
Bleeding upon probing (% sites) 4.67 (±7.85) 20.78(±19.5)a 7.20 (±4.70) 16.91 (±15.9)a
Plaque Index (score) 0.43 (±0.28) 0.91(±0.59)a 0.83 (±0.40) 0.88 (±0.50)
Tooth brushing (times/day) 2.85 (±0.93) 2.62 (±0.85) 3.0 (±0.76) 2.96 (±0.92)
Dental floss (times/day) 1.06 (±0.94) 0.74 (±0.89) 1.26 (±1.40) 1.38 (±1.30)
Tooth loss 1.78 (±2.17) 4.50 (±3.70)a 1.38 (±1.57) 4.90 (±4.17)a
  1. Values were expressed as mean ± SD or percentage
  2. Non-CP without chronic periodontitis, CP chronic periodontitis, SLEDAI Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, SLICC/ACR Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index
  3. aStatistically different comparing Non-CP × CP within the same group
  4. bStatistically different comparing SLE × healthy control group. Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn’s post hoc test <0.05