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Table 2 Antibiotics used in this experiment (additional information from [75] and [76]

From: Resilient microorganisms in dust samples of the International Space Station—survival of the adaptation specialists

Antibiotic substance Type Mechanism of action Target group Concentrations applied (μg/ml)
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid β-Lactam antibiotic (penicillin) and β-lactamase inhibitor Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal against growing bacteria Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Ampicillin β-Lactam antibiotic penicillin Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal against growing bacteria Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Cefotaxime β-Lactam antibiotic; cephalosporin Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal against growing bacteria Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Ceftriaxone β-Lactam antibiotic; cephalosporin Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal against growing bacteria Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Ciprofloxacin Fluoroquinolone Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase; bactericidal Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.002−32
Clarithromycin Macrolide Inhibits protein synthesis; bacteriostatic Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Clindamycin Lincosamide inhibits protein synthesis; bacteriostatic Gram+ and anaerobic Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Colistin Polypeptide antibiotic; polymyxin Attacks cell membrane; bactericidal Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Doxycycline Polyketide antibiotic; tetracycline inhibits protein synthesis; bacteriostatic; Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.016−256
Gentamicin Aminoglycoside inhibits protein synthesis; bactericidal Gram− and some Gram+ bacteria 0.016−256
Levofloxacin Fluoroquinolone Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase; bactericidal Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.002−32
Linezolid Oxazolidinone inhibits protein synthesis; bacteriostatic Gram+ bacteria 0.016−256
Meropenem β-Lactam antibiotic carbapenem Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal against growing bacteria Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.002−32
Moxifloxacin Fluoroquinolone Inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase; bactericidal; Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.002−32
Penicillin G β-Lactam antibiotic penicillin Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal against growing bacteria Gram+ bacteria 0.016−256
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole Dihydrofolate reductase inhibtor and sulfonamide Inhibits tetrahydrofolate synthesis; bactericidal Gram+ and Gram− bacteria 0.002−32
Vancomycin Glycopeptide antibiotic Inhibits cell wall synthesis; bactericidal against growing bacteria Gram+ bacteria 0.016−256