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Table 1 Total, viable, and cultivable microbiological characteristics of ILMAH surface samples

From: Microbial succession in an inflated lunar/Mars analog habitat during a 30-day human occupation

Sample location Cultivable bacterial population (CFU/m2) QPCR-based bacterial population (16S rRNA copies/m2) ATP-based microbial population (relative luminescence unit/m2)
(A) Total bacterial burden (PMA-untreated) (B) Viable bacterial burden (PMA-treated) Percentage of viable bacterial population (B/A × 100) (C) Total microbial burden (total ATP content) (D) Viable microbial burden (intracellular ATP content) Percentage of viable microbial population (D/C × 100)
North Dakota ILMAH 30-day mission (before crew occupation)
 Bedroom 1 1.26 × 106 1.44 × 106 3.69 × 105 25.68 3.93 × 106 7.65 × 106 >100
 Bedroom 2 1.86 × 106 1.10 × 106 8.42 × 105 76.62 1.27 × 106 1.13 × 106 88.89
 Kitchen 3 4.63 × 106 5.83 × 105 6.23 × 105 >100 9.80 × 105 4.43 × 105 45.16
 Kitchen 4 4.25 × 106 2.44 × 106 1.50 × 106 61.46 1.56 × 106 2.28 × 106 >100
 Bathroom 5 1.41 × 106 9.41 × 106 1.70 × 106 18.02 9.29 × 105 3.36 × 105 36.19
 Laboratory 6 1.51 × 107 1.33 × 106 4.28 × 105 32.23 2.15 × 106 5.47 × 106 >100
 Laboratory 7 2.08 × 107 6.43 × 103 BDL ND 2.03 × 106 1.04 × 107 >100
 Laboratory 8 8.10 × 105 BDL BDL ND 1.89 × 106 1.02 × 106 53.63
North Dakota ILMAH 30-day mission (Day 13)
 Bedroom 1 3.80 × 103 1.23 × 106 6.49 × 104 5.28 7.82 × 105 3.36 × 105 43.04
 Bedroom 2 1.85 × 104 5.32 × 105 7.80 × 104 14.66 4.82 × 106 6.63 × 105 13.76
 Kitchen 3 2.60 × 104 8.88 × 105 1.36 × 105 15.28 6.96 × 106 8.75 × 105 12.58
 Kitchen 4 7.35 × 104 1.43 × 107 4.66 × 105 3.26 2.48 × 106 1.20 × 106 48.43
 Bathroom 5 1.05 × 104 7.95 × 105 3.44 × 104 4.33 3.50 × 106 7.02 × 105 20.07
 Laboratory 6 8.93 × 104 2.06 × 106 6.46 × 105 31.47 4.75 × 106 1.89 × 106 39.81
 Laboratory 7 1.19 × 105 4.16 × 106 3.68 × 105 8.85 4.60 × 106 9.76 × 105 21.22
 Laboratory 8 3.33 × 104 1.11 × 106 3.25 × 105 29.30 3.87 × 106 1.03 × 106 26.54
North Dakota ILMAH 30-day mission (Day 20)
 Bedroom 1 2.05 × 104 6.93 × 105 8.52 × 104 12.31 6.04 × 106 1.31 × 106 21.65
 Bedroom 2 1.62 × 105 2.89 × 105 4.45 × 104 15.40 6.04 × 106 1.78 × 106 29.43
 Kitchen 3 4.63 × 104 4.38 × 106 3.79 × 105 8.66 5.05 × 106 1.94 × 106 38.48
 Kitchen 4 2.10 × 104 2.00 × 106 1.01 × 105 5.04 2.47 × 106 5.97 × 105 24.19
 Bathroom 5 1.90 × 104 2.84 × 105 1.75 × 105 61.86 4.05 × 106 1.75 × 106 43.15
 Laboratory 6 5.58 × 104 1.09 × 106 2.16 × 105 19.76 4.40 × 106 2.10 × 106 47.72
 Laboratory 7 1.47 × 104 3.71 × 105 1.74 × 104 4.70 2.65 × 106 1.01 × 106 38.05
 Laboratory 8 5.55 × 104 8.90 × 105 1.86 × 105 20.86 3.88 × 106 1.47 × 106 37.91
North Dakota ILMAH 30-day mission (Day 30)
 Bedroom 1 1.12 × 105 3.81 × 106 1.60 × 105 4.19 1.61 × 106 4.14 × 105 25.77
 Bedroom 2 2.33 × 105 3.28 × 106 3.38 × 105 10.30 4.10 × 106 1.83 × 106 44.75
 Kitchen 3 3.24 × 104 3.98 × 106 1.94 × 105 4.88 2.42 × 106 9.63 × 105 39.85
 Kitchen 4 2.15 × 103 2.41 × 106 8.69 × 104 3.61 3.66 × 106 3.61 × 105 9.87
 Bathroom 5 1.03 × 105 3.29 × 106 1.44 × 105 4.38 2.17 × 106 6.15 × 105 28.37
 Laboratory 6 1.27 × 105 5.92 × 106 1.09 × 106 18.36 1.48 × 106 1.07 × 106 72.35
 Laboratory 7 6.30 × 104 6.89 × 106 7.78 × 105 11.30 2.96 × 106 1.25 × 106 42.19
 Laboratory 8 5.85 × 104 4.86 × 106 3.41 × 105 7.02 4.12 × 106 7.29 × 105 17.68
  1. BDL below detection limit, ND since one of the values is BDL, the ratio cannot be determined