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Table 4 Multivariable analysis of medications associated with selected microbial taxa

From: Bloom and bust: intestinal microbiota dynamics in response to hospital exposures and Clostridium difficile colonization or infection

Taxa (outcome) Medicationa Estimateb Standard error P valuec
Clostridium Glucocorticoids 3.72 1.65 0.0239
Laxatives −2.46 0.99 0.0126
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs −2.11 0.90 0.0197
Eubacterium Fluoroquinolones −0.99 0.44 0.0237
Laxatives −1.21 0.48 0.0115
Clostridiales Family XI Incertae Sedis Cephalosporins −5.78 2.08 0.0055
Fluoroquinolones −5.95 2.21 0.0071
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 3.76 1.99 0.0580
Penicillin with β-lactamase inhibitors −5.70 2.54 0.0248
Enterococcus Fluoroquinolones 215.43 102.34 0.0353
Intravenous vancomycin 181.32 95.02 0.0564
  1. Among patients who were neither colonized nor infected with C. difficile. All of the multivariable models were adjusted for age, sex, and duration of hospitalization
  2. aReceived within 3 days prior to stool collection
  3. bA positive value indicates that the relative abundance of the corresponding taxa was higher among patients exposed to the medication, while a negative value indicates that the relative abundance was lower
  4. c P values were determined by using the GEE-derived robust z scores