Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Associations between medication use and intestinal microbiota diversity

From: Bloom and bust: intestinal microbiota dynamics in response to hospital exposures and Clostridium difficile colonization or infection

Medicationa No. of patients exposed No. of samples exposed Estimateb Standard error P valuec
Antibiotics      
 Cephalosporins 57 81 −0.06 0.07 0.3764
 Fluoroquinolones 8 15 −0.20 0.10 0.0367
 Penicillin with β-lactamase inhibitors 7 12 −0.17 0.19 0.3805
 Carbapenems 5 11 −0.30 0.26 0.2417
 Intravenous vancomycin 6 12 −0.41 0.15 0.0080
Other medications      
 Glucocorticoids 7 13 −0.02 0.17 0.8977
 Laxatives 13 24 −0.05 0.09 0.5976
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 30 57 0.08 0.08 0.3264
 Opioids 23 38 0.13 0.06 0.0202
 Proton pump inhibitors 21 54 −0.11 0.10 0.2738
  1. Among patients who were neither colonized nor infected with C. difficile
  2. aReceived within 3 days prior to stool collection
  3. bA positive value indicates that intestinal microbiota diversity was higher among patients exposed to the medication, while a negative value indicates that intestinal microbiota diversity was lower
  4. c P values were determined by using the GEE-derived robust z scores