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Table 1 Characteristics of the study patients

From: Bloom and bust: intestinal microbiota dynamics in response to hospital exposures and Clostridium difficile colonization or infection

Variable Neither C. difficile infection nor colonization (n = 90) C. difficile infection (n = 4) C. difficile colonization (n = 4)
Age, mean years (range) 74 (61–91) 71 (66–80) 74 (71–78)
Male sex 44 (49) 2 (50) 2 (50)
Horn’s indexa, median (range) 1 (1–2) 1 (1–1) 1 (1–2)
Duration of hospitalizationb, median days (range) 5 (1–69) 21 (2–61) 5 (1–15)
Hospitalization in past 12 monthsc 11 (12) 0 0
Fecal specimens analyzed, median (range) 2 (1–12) 4 (1–15) 2 (1–4)
Reason for hospital admission    
 Osteoarthritis/Rheumatoid arthritis 62 (69) 0 1 (25)
 Pneumonia 8 (9) 1 (25) 1 (25)
 Cellulitis 4 (4) 1 (25) 1 (25)
 Fever 2 (2) 0 0
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 3 (3) 0 0
 Othersd 11 (12) 2 (50) 1 (25)
Medication useb    
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 33 (37) 4 (100) 2 (50)
 Proton pump inhibitors 26 (29) 2 (50) 2 (50)
 Glucocorticoids 12 (13) 2 (50) 1 (25)
 Opioids 25 (28) 3 (75) 1 (25)
 Laxatives 16 (18) 3 (75) 0
 Propulsive agents 3 (3) 0 0
 Antipropulsive agents 1 (1) 1 (25) 0
 Chemotherapeutic agents 0 0 1 (25)
 Any antibiotic 80 (89) 4 (100) 4 (100)
 Cephalosporins 60 (67) 1 (25) 1 (25)
 Fluoroquinolones 13 (14) 2 (50) 0
 Penicillin with β-lactamase inhibitors 12 (13) 3 (75) 1 (25)
 Vancomycin (intravenous) 7 (8) 2 (50) 0
 Carbapenems 6 (7) 2 (50) 2 (50)
 Penicillins 5 (6) 0 0
 Azithromycin 4 (4) 1 (25) 0
 Metronidazole 3 (3) 1 (25) 0
 Cotrimoxazole 2 (2) 0 0
 Otherse 2 (2) 3 (75) 0
  1. Data are number (%) of subjects unless otherwise specified
  2. aEvaluated at study enrollment
  3. bFrom admission until diagnosis of C. difficile infection or colonization (for infected and colonized patients, respectively) or until discharge (for patients with neither infection nor colonization)
  4. cInformation about prior hospitalization was unknown for one of the 90 patients with neither C. difficile infection nor colonization
  5. dOther reasons include bladder/kidney/urinary tract infection, closed fracture, urosepsis, cholecystitis, chronic stasis dermatitis, perinephric infection, diverticulitis, abdominal pain, abdominal hernia, ureteral stone, gangrene, and hip pain
  6. eOther antimicrobial agents include oral vancomycin, clindamycin, daptomycin, gentamicin, Tigecycline, antivirals, and antifungals