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Table 1 Characteristics of the volunteers

From: The administration of intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine induces changes in the nasal microbiota and nasal epithelium gene expression profiles

  Healthy volunteer Healthy volunteer
  Saline controls (n = 7) LAIV (n = 10)
Age, mean (range) 21.3 (18–25) years 23.8 (18–32) years
Gender (% female) 23.5 % 29.4 %
Student (%) 100 % 70 %
Nose-picking
 Never 14.3 % 20 %
 Weekly 71.4 % 50 %
 Daily 14.3 % 30 %
  1. Values noted are means with ranges expressed for the age. In addition to that noted above, all volunteers had no recent smoking history, did not swim, predominantly showered rather than bathed, and used no probiotics or antibiotics within 90 days of enrollment