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Table 1 Beneficial microorganisms in mental health studies found in the built environment

From: The microbiome of the built environment and mental health

Phylum/microorganism Model Environmental sources Presence in MoBE Mental health relevant findingsa
Actinobacteria     
Mycobacterium vaccae Human Environmental saprophyte (soil, mud, water, grasses, decaying organic matter) [119125] Soil floors [123], reservoirs [125], well water [122, 126], cooling towers [126, 127], water distribution systems [128], household tap water [126, 129], moisture-damaged building materials [130], terraria [131], sewage [122], drainage pools [132], wastewater treatment plants [133] Increased cognitive function, decreased pain in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer [134]
Mouse Activation of brain serotonergic systems and antidepressant-like behavioral effects [135]; decreased anxiety/increased cognitive function [136]
Bifidobacterium breve Mouse Human commensal Human and animal wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [137] Increased cognitive function [138]; decreased anxiety-related behaviors [139]
Bifidobacterium infantis Rat Human commensal Human and animal wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [137] Reversal of depressive-like behavior following maternal separation [140]
Bifidobacterium longum Human Human commensal Human wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [137] Decreased anxiety and depressive symptoms in healthy volunteers (administered with L. helveticus) [141, 142]
Mouse Decreased-colitis associated anxiety [143, 144]; increased cognitive function [138]; decreased stress, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors [139]
Bacteroidetes     
Bacteroides fragilis Mouse Human commensal Human and animal wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [145] Developmental protection from some of the behavioral symptoms associated with autism spectrum disorder [146]
Firmicutes     
Clostridium butyricum Human Endospore-forming soil bacterium   Anxiolytic effects [147]
Enterococcus faecium Mouse Human commensal, wetlands [148] Well water, human and animal wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [148] Increased brain antioxidant markers [149]
Lactobacillus casei Human Human commensal, fermented foods [150] Human and animal wastewater, wastewater treatment plants [150], office space (Lactobacillus spp.), bathroom surfaces (Lactobacillaceae) [151] Improvement in anxiety symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome [152]; improved mood [153]
Lactobacillus fermentum Rat Human commensal, raw vegetables [154], fermented foods [150, 155] Sewage [155], office space (Lactobacillus spp.) [156], bathroom surfaces (Lactobacillaceae) [151] Decreased anxiety and inhibition of antibiotic-induced cognitive impairment [157]
Lactobacillus helveticus Human Fermented foods [150] Office space (Lactobacillus spp.) [156], bathroom surfaces (Lactobacillaceae) [151] Decreased anxiety and depressive symptoms in healthy volunteers (administered with B. longum) [141, 142]
Rat Improved cognitive function, decreased anxiety-related behavior [158]; prevention of stress-induced cognitive impairment and anxiety- and depressive-like responses [159]
Mouse Decreased anxiety-related behavior [160]; improved cognitive function, decreased anxiety-related behavior (administered with L. rhamnosus) [15, 161]
Lactobacillus pentosus   Fermented foods [150] Sewage [155], office space (Lactobacillus spp.) [156], bathroom surfaces (Lactobacillaceae) [151] Improved cognitive function [162]
Lactobacillus reuteri Human Human commensal, fermented foods [150] Office space (Lactobacillus spp.) [156], bathroom surfaces (Lactobacillaceae) [151] Increased workplace healthiness [163]
Lactobacillus rhamnosus Mouse Human commensal, fermented foods [150] Sewage [155], office space (Lactobacillus spp.) [156], bathroom surfaces (Lactobacillaceae) [151] Vagus nerve-dependent alterations in GABA receptor mRNA expression in brain, reduced anxiety- and depression-related behavior [17]; improved cognitive function, decreased anxiety-related behavior (administered with L. helveticus) [161, 164]
Probiotic cocktails     
B. bifidum, B. lactis, L. acidophilus, L. brevis, L. casei, L. salivarius, L. lactis Human    Reduced cognitive reactivity to sad mood [165]
B. animalis subsp. Lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. Lactis subsp. Lactis Human    Altered task-related response of brain networks involving affective, viscerosensory, and somatosensory cortices [166]
L. acidophilus, B. lactis Human    Improved scores on anxiety, depression, and stress scales [167]
L. casei, L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. bulgaricus, B. breve, B. longum, S. thermophilus Human    Improved scores on anxiety, depression, and stress scales [167]
 VSL#3: S. salivarius subsp. thermophilus, B. breve, B. infantis, B. longum, L. acidophilus, L. planarum, L. casei, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus Mouse    Decreased sickness behavior, decreased microglial activation [168]
L. plantarum, L. curvatus Rat    Improved cognitive function [169]
L. acidophilus, B. lactis, L. fermentum Rat    Improved cognitive function [170]
L. helveticus, B. longum Rat    Decreased depressive-like behavior [171]
  1. aAlthough mental health benefits of microorganisms are typcially strain dependent, we have not included strain information in order to simplify the table