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Fig. 5 | Microbiome

Fig. 5

From: Type 2 immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

Fig. 5

N. brasiliensis infection-induced alterations in AMP, SFB, and Th17-associated genes depend primarily on IL-13 and STAT6. Mice deficient in IL-13 (ac) or STAT6 (df) were infected with N. brasiliensis and euthanized at day 11 post-inoculation. qPCR was carried out to quantify expression of antimicrobial peptides (a, d), SFB-specific and universal bacterial 16S rRNA (b, e), and Th17-associated genes (c, f). The abundance of SFB is relative to vehicle after normalization to total bacteria based on 16S rRNA qPCR. The fold change in mRNA is relative to vehicle after normalization to 18S rRNA. Data shown in bar graphs are the mean ± s.e.m. Mann–Whitney test (b, e) or two-tailed Student’s t-test (a, c, d, f) was used for comparisons between the two groups. *P < 0.05 versus respective vehicle (n = 7 for vehicle groups and 6 for N. brasiliensis-infected groups; one mouse died after infection)

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