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Fig. 3 | Microbiome

Fig. 3

From: Type 2 immunity-dependent reduction of segmented filamentous bacteria in mice infected with the helminthic parasite Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

Fig. 3

Infection with N. brasiliensis reduces the abundance of segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) along the gastrointestinal tract and the expression of Th17 cell-associated genes in the ileum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted from intestinal strips containing the luminal contents or feces. 16S rRNA sequencing was carried out to examine the relative abundance of SFB in the ileum (a). qPCR further confirmed the decrease of SFB abundance in infected mice in ileum (b), jejunum (c), proximal colon (d), and feces (e), relative to vehicle after normalization to total bacteria. Expression of Th17-associated genes was determined by qPCR (f). The fold change in mRNA is relative to vehicle after normalization to 18S rRNA. Data shown in bar graphs are the mean ± s.e.m. Mann–Whitney test (ae) or two-tailed Student’s t-test (f) was used for comparisons between groups. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001 versus respective vehicle (n = 10 for vehicle group and n = 9 for N. brasiliensis-infected group)

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