Health and disease associated phyla, by relative abundance. The top five most abundant phyla with significant differences between health and disease are shown. Significance was assessed with a Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05). Disease abundances are shown in pale red, and health abundances in green. (A) All samples (SubG, SupG, and tongue). (B) SubG samples. (C) SupG samples. (D) Tongue samples. *0.01 < P < 0.05; **0.001 < P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001; ****P < 0.0001.