Changes in the direct counts and viable cell density from pouch mucosal samples. Brush samples obtained during endoscopy were loaded onto a counting chamber for direct cell counts (A). Error bars were standard errors of three counts per sample. Anaerobic and aerobic cultivation on complex medium was performed. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) on day 5 was used to calculate viable cell density (CFU/ml) (B). Error bars were standard errors of CFU number on triplicate agar plates from independent serial dilutions. For comparison, colon mucosal brushes/biopsies from healthy individuals (control) are included in the figure.