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Table 3 In vitro models used to study host-microbes interactions

From: From meta-omics to causality: experimental models for human microbiome research

Feature Transwell Inserts SHIME[109] M-SHIME[110] TIM1[111] TIM2[112] CCS[113] Gut-on-a-Chip[44]
Human cell culture a +b - - - - +b ++b
GIT microbiota culture - + + - + - -
Anaerobic conditions for microbes - + + + + + -
Mucin + - + - - - -
pH measurement - + + + + + -
Throughput + - - - - - +
  1. aThe models involving the possibility to incorporate human cells can be subjected to Trans-epithelial Electric Resistance (TEER) measurements (except the model CCS).
  2. b+, co-culture for 3 to 6 h; ++, co-culture for >1 week.
  3. CCS, continuous culture system; GIT, gastrointestinal tract; M-SHIME, Mucus-Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem; SHIME, Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem; TIM1, model simulating the stomach and small intestine; TIM2, model simulating the large intestine.