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Table 2 Association between urinary metabolite values, microbial community characteristics and NECa

From: Early microbial and metabolomic signatures predict later onset of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants

Characteristic Alanine Histidine Alanine:histidine ratio
Spearmans rho (P value)
Firmicutes, relative abundance +0.49 +0.32 +0.20
(P = 0.009) (P = 0.095) (P = 0.315)
Proteobacteria, relative abundance 0.42 −0.24 −0.16
(P = 0.027) (P = 0.221) (P = 0.413)
Propionibacterium, relative abundance 0.45 +0.02 0.57
(P = 0.015) (P = 0.920) (P = 0.002)
Median values by cluster or NEC status (Kruskal–Wallis P value)
Cluster I samples versus 3.34 0.59 4.97
All other samples 1.52 0.44 3.46
(P < 0.001) (P = 0.140) (P = 0.029)
Cluster II samples versus 1.52 0.44 3.51
All other samples 2.46 0.59 4.86
(P = 0.007) (P = 0.104) (P = 0.403)
NEC samples versus 2.13 0.33 6.32
All others excluding non-NEC deaths 1.72 0.53 3.42
(P = 0.467) (P = 0.169) (P = 0.022)
NEC-I versus 2.81 0.55 4.86
All others excluding non-NEC deaths 1.57 0.44 3.51
(P = 0.023) (P = 0.394) (P = 0.177)
NEC-II versus 1.50 0.25 7.35
All others excluding non-NEC deaths 1.84 0.53 3.53
  (P = 0.229) (P = 0.015) (P = 0.126)
  1. aThe urine and stool samples were collected from 28 infants between postnatal days 4 to 9. Analyses include 9 NEC cases, 2 deaths and 17 controls, except analysis of NEC, NEC-I and NEC-II, for which the non-NEC deaths were removed as a competing cause. Metabolites measured as normalized peak intensity. Significant values are bolded.